- Common in the elderly – reduced tear secretion
- Persistent gritty sensation without red eye
- Sjörgen’s syndrome: autoimmune condition, dry eyes and mouth which often accompanies connective tissue disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis
- Diuretics and anticholinergic agents may exacerbate dry eye.
- Staining of the cornea with fluorescin
- Schrimer’s test (strip of filter paper in fornix, measure advancing edge of tears)
- Artificial tear drops or simple ointments
- Acetylcysteine drops (in filamentary keratitis)
- Treatment of blepharitis
- Temporary punctal plugs or permanent punctal occlusion (tear conservation).