T: size or direct extent of the primary tumor

  • Tx: tumor cannot be evaluated
  • Tis: carcinoma in situ
  • T0: no signs of tumor
  • T1, T2, T3, T4: size and/or extension of the primary tumor
N: degree of spread to regional lymph nodes
  • Nx: lymph nodes cannot be evaluated
  • N0: tumor cells absent from regional lymph nodes
  • N1: regional lymph node metastasis present; (at some sites: tumor spread to closest or small number of regional lymph nodes)
  • N2: tumor spread to an extent between N1 and N3 (N2 is not used at all sites)
  • N3: tumor spread to more distant or numerous regional lymph nodes (N3 is not used at all sites)
M: presence of metastasis
  • Mx: distant metastasis cannot be evaluated
  • M0: no distant metastasis
  • M1: metastasis to distant organs (beyond regional lymph nodes)

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