Atrial Fibrillation – AF

Atrial fibrillation is a common tachycardia. It is significant, as having the condition increases the risk of stroke. Managing acute atrial fibrillation is a very common problem in the emergency department with many different...

More

BLS – Basic Life Support

Introduction This is really is ‘basic’ life support, often performed without any equipment (or an automated defibrillator if one is available). It involves pure ‘CPR’ as a lay person might understand it. It is...

More

Burns

Assessing burn depth Superficial – epidermis (erythema) only. Can be differentiated from partial thickness by rubbing the skin. If the epidermis moves around, sliding over the deeper layers, this is a partial thickness burn...

More

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning, also known as the “silent killer” can be a life-threatening situation. CO is an odourless, colourless gas (hence ‘silent’). CO binds to haemoglobin (carboxyhemoglobin) with 240x greater affinity than...

More

Cardiac Arrest

​Introduction Cardiac arrest is an ‘arrest’ in the activity of the heart – the heart has stopped beating. There will be no contraction of the heart muscle, but there may still be electrical activity...

More

Cardiac Tamponade

Introduction Cardiac Tamponade is a condition where the heart become compressed by excess fluid in the pericardium. Compression causes reduced diastolic filling of the heart, which can cause cardiac arrest. The pericardiac sac is...

More

Cholangitis

Introduction Cholangitis is inflammation of the bile duct. It is typically the results of a bacterial infection (often secondary to gallstones), but can also occur in other conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and...

More

Cholecystitis

Acute Cholecystitis This is caused by a blockage in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder (95% of cases are gallstones or gallstone precursor ‘sludge’) It is unlikely to be infection, and more...

More

Compartment Syndrome

Introduction Compartment syndrome is a condition that results from swelling of a muscle. The muscle is retained in its fixed volume fascia (its “compartment”), however, and thus the swelling of the muscle causes an...

More