Goitre

Introduction Goitre refers to an enlarged palpable thyroid gland, which moves on swallowing. It may be a benign disorder but is also associated with several thyroid diseases, including iodine deficiency (common in the developing world,...

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Hyperprolactinaemia

Introduction Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, most commonly associated with lactation (milk production) in the female. It is also produced in adipose (fat) tissue and hair follicles. Hypoerprolactinaemia exists...

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Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis is the state produced by excessive thyroid hormone. It is not strictly the same thing as hyperthyroidism, as thyrotoxicosis can exist without hyperthyroidism being present ‚Äď for example ‚Äď after the administration...

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Hypopituitarism

Introduction Hypopituitarism entails reduced secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Which hormones go first? Anterior pituitary hormones are affected in the following order: GH >> muscle and bone FSH >> ovary LH >> testes Polactin >> breast TSH >> thyroid ACTH >> kidney and adrenal gland N.B....

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Hypothyroidism

Introduction Hypothyroidism (aka myxoedema) is a common disorder which presents most frequently in women and the elderly. It can usually be managed in primary care without the need for specialist involvement (unlike hyperthyroidism) and...

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Introduction to Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (to be differentiated from diabetes insipidus, although mellitus is much more prevalent and thus referred to as commonly “diabetes”)¬†is a chronic state of hyperglycaemia caused by a lack of or diminished effectiveness...

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Monitoring and Complications of Diabetes

We treat diabetes to reduce the risk of the complications of diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes. So it is important to monitor that treatment is effective,...

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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)

Introduction MEN = the occurrence of several distinct syndromes featuring functional tumours of multiple endocrine glands. In some cases, tumours are malignant; in others, they are benign. MEN Tumours arising in >1 endocrine gland....

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