Parathyroid Glands

Introduction  The parathyroid glands control the level of calcium and phosphates in the blood. Phosphate levels can vary up to 2-3x the normal level without causing major problems Calcium levels have to be much...

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Phaeochromocytoma

Introduction Phaeochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of the medulla of the adrenal glands. It secretes large quantities of ¬†the catecholamines noradrenaline, and to a lesser extent, adrenaline.   Epidemiology Rule of 10: 10% familial,...

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Physiology of Metabolism

Introduction Only 1% of pancreatic tissue is endocrine. This tissue is found in the Islets of langerhans. Surrounding the islets are adipose tissue deposits. The older you get, the more adipose tissue you have....

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Plasma Osmolality and Salt Balance

Water moves freely between compartments and the distribution is determined by the osmotic equilibrium between them. The dilution of plasma is described as plasma osmolality. The more diluted the plasma is, the lower the...

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