Malignant Hypertension

Introduction Malignant hypertension (aka – hypertensive crisis) is a very high blood pressure that typically comes on suddenly and quickly. It is defined as systolic blood pressure of >180 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure...

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Medication Overuse Headache

Introduction Medication overuse headache (AKA rebound headache) usually occurs in patients with a past medical history of severe headache, for which they have frequently/ excessively used analgesics. Clinical Features Chronic headache occurring >15 days...

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Migraine

Introduction Migraine is a common cause of headache affecting about 15% of individuals. Headaches are typically recurrent, and last anywhere up o 72 hours. They are typically associated with nausea and photophobia, and rarely...

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Motor Neuron Disease (MND)

Introduction Relatively common disease, seen worldwide. There is degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord, affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. MND never causes sensory problems   MND is...

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Summary Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory condition that affects the oligodendrocites of the CNS. Peripheral nerves are not affected. Epidemiology & Aetiology More common the further away from the equator you are Some...

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Muscle Disorders

Introduction The main feature of muscle disorders is weakness without reflex loss. This helps us to differentiate these disorders from: UMN lesion – weakness with increased reflexes LMN lesion – weakness with decreased reflexes...

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Myasthenia Gravis

Introduction Myasthenia Gravis is an acquired, autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Antibodies attack the Acetylcholine receptor. This results weakness in muscles, particularly the ocular, bulbar and proximal skeletal. “Fatigability” is a key symptom!...

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