Paediatric Abdominal Exam

Below is a brief summary of what to check for in a paediatric abdominal examination. For a detailed explanation of these features, and for adult abdominal examination, please see the abdominal examination article.  ...

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Paediatric Respiratory Exam

General Inspection How old is the child? You will probably have to adapt the exam accordingly! Generally, you could put the children into three categories depending on their age: 0-6months, 6-24 months and 2...

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Paediatric Vital Signs

Unlike adult vital signs, the exact reference ranges for paediatrics are not universally agreed upon and there is some variation between sources. The table below is an approximation based on several sources, most closely...

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PDA – Patent Ductus Arteriosus

PDA – Patent Ductus Arteriosus – L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC   Treatment Usually treated even if asymptomatic to reduce the risk of infective endocarditis Usually involves cardiac catheterisation whereby a coil is introduced to...

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Perthes Disease

Introduction Perthes disease (also Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) is a childhood hip disorder that results in avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The cause is unknown. It can be differentiated from adult onset osteonecrosis because in...

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Pneumonia (Children)

Introduction Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs, characterised by inflammation of the lung parenchyma and production of fluid in the alveoli. It is technically a type of bronchitis (infection of the bronchi). The...

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Pyloric Stenosis

Epidemiology More common in boys (4:1) Often a maternal family history Increased risk if siblings were affected Erythromycin exposure in first few weeks of life Pathology There is a functional obstruction of the pyloric...

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