Knee Examination

The knee is a hinge joint, but it depends on external structures for its stability, including the cruciate and collateral ligaments, and the menisci. Inspection (look) First of all, uncover the knee joint (best...

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Marfan Syndrome

Introduction Marfan Syndrome (sometime Marfan’s Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder. Epidemiology and Aeitiology 25% of cases occur without family history Reduced life expectancy – average is around 60 Pathology The result...

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Mechanical Back Pain

Introduction Mechanical back pain (aka lumbago, lower back pain) is a term used to describe musculoskeletal lower back pain. It is extremely common, with about 80% of those in Western Society experiencing it at...

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Osteoarthritis – OA

Introduction Osteoarthritis is a condition that results from the loss of cartilage at synovial joints, and is often accompanied by degeneration of the underlying bone. Radiologically there are: osteophytes Joint space narrowing Epidemiology most...

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Polymyalgia Rheumatica – PMR

Introduction Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition which causes bilateral pain, typically worse in the morning and associated with morning stiffness, in the shoulder, neck and pelvic girdle. It is rarely seen...

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Psoriasis

Introduction Psoriasis is a a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterised by raised, red, itchy scaly plaques on the skin. With treatment, it often follows a relapsing and remitting course, although in more severe...

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Psoriatic Arthritis

Introduction Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition which affects the skin and joints. It is sometimes referred to as one of the spondyloarthritides (inflammatory arthritis that is seronegative for rheumatoid factor (and/or does not fit...

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Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Introduction The Raynaud phenomenon – RP – (also Reynaud’s Syndrome, Raynaud’s disease or simply Reynaud’s) is a vascular condition whereby there is excessive arterial vasoconstriction, most commonly in the hands, in response to cold...

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Reactive Arthritis

Reiter’s Syndrome aka Reactive arthritis This acute form of spondyloarthritis is associated with STI’s and acute diarrhoea. Usually occurs shortly after the initial infection, although it is still an autoimmune reaction. Aetiology Associated with...

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