Hip Examination

The hip is another ball and socket joint, but has reduced levels of movement compared to the shoulder. The joint’s main role is weight bearing. Inspection Ask the patient if they have any hip...

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Knee Examination

The knee is a hinge joint, but it depends on external structures for its stability, including the cruciate and collateral ligaments, and the menisci. Inspection (look) First of all, uncover the knee joint (best...

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Lower Back Pain

Introduction Lower back pain is a very common presentation to general practice and emergency departments. Lower back pain accounts for at least 5% of all general practice presentations 80% of people will have one...

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Marfan Syndrome

Introduction Marfan Syndrome (sometime Marfan’s Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder. Epidemiology and Aeitiology 25% of cases occur without family history Reduced life expectancy – average is around 60 Pathology The result...

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Mechanical Back Pain

Introduction Mechanical back pain (aka non-specific back pack, sometimes previously termed lumbago) is a term used to describe musculoskeletal lower back pain. It is extremely common, with about 80% of those in Western Society...

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Osteoarthritis – OA

Introduction Osteoarthritis is a condition that results from the loss of cartilage at synovial joints, and is often accompanied by degeneration of the underlying bone. Radiologically there can be visible: Osteophytes Joint space narrowing...

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Polymyalgia Rheumatica – PMR

Introduction Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition which causes bilateral pain, typically worse in the morning and associated with morning stiffness, in the shoulder, neck and pelvic girdle. It is rarely seen...

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Psoriasis

Introduction Psoriasis is a a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterised by raised, red, itchy, scaly plaques on the skin. With treatment, it often follows a relapsing and remitting course, although in more severe...

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