Shoulder Examination

Inspection Look for scars (particularly keyhole), deformity and wasting. Compare both shoulders, and have a good look around from all angles. Make sure the patient is adequately exposed to view the shoulder from both...

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SLE – Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease, similar to systemic sclerosis, RA, and mixed connective tissue disease. Often, symptoms of these diseases overlap. In cases where you unable to distinguish exactly...

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Spondyloarthritides

Introduction Spondyloarthritides (aka spondyarthritis, SpA, seronegative spondylarthropathy) – these are inflammatory joint diseases of the vertebral column and sacro-iliac joints. These conditions tend to mimic rheumatoid conditions (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), but are serologically different,...

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Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

Introduction Systemic sclerosis aka Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Other similar diseases include SLE, RA, Sjogren’s syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease. There is a lot of overlap in the symptoms of these...

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