Cholangitis

Introduction Cholangitis is inflammation of the bile duct. It is typically the results of a bacterial infection (often secondary to gallstones), but can also occur in other conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and...

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Colorectal Cancer

Summary This article refers to cancer of the large bowel. Interestingly, the small bowel is a very rare site for carcinoma, despite the fact it has the highest cell turnover of anywhere in the...

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Compartment Syndrome

Introduction Compartment syndrome is a condition that results from swelling of a muscle. The muscle is retained in its fixed volume fascia (its “compartment”), however, and thus the swelling of the muscle causes an...

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Diverticulitis

Summary What is diverticular disease? It is an acquired condition, in which there are small out-pouchings of the mucosa of the large intestine, known as diverticulae. Definitions Diverticulosis – the presence of diverticulae in...

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Faecal Incontinence

Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve); Dementia and unconsciousness; Diarrhoea...

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Gallstones

Introduction Gallstones and biliary disease can be a bit confusing, and there is a lot of overlap. Essentially, gallstones themselves are not problematic in the vast majority of cases, but can predispose the other...

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Gastric Tumours

Summary Unless otherwise stated, the article below refers to gastric adenocarcinoma Epidemiology The second most common cancer worldwide (behind lung cancer) Most common in South America and Japan (due to diet) 8th most common...

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