Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

Introduction A malignant disease which has an eczematous appearance, involving the nipple. It is commonly associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ. It is associated with 2% of all cases of breast cancer....

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Pancreatic Cancer

Introduction Pancreatic cancers are 95% exocrine, adenocarcinomas. These affect the duct or surround the duct. The remaining 5% are neuroendocrine tumours e.g. insulinomas, glucagonomas (the former being the more common). This article pertains to...

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Pancreatitis

Introduction Pancreatitis is a condition involving inflammation of the pancreas. It can be acute or chronic; acute pancreatitis can return to normal after resolution of the episode, conversely chronic pancreatitis, is continuing inflammation, often with irreversible...

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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

Introduction Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is due to atherosclerosis of arteries in the limbs. The level of arterial occlusion present is proportional to the symptoms. The pathogenesis and risk factors are the same as...

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Peripheral Vascular Exam

Introduction introduce yourself wash your hands check you’ve got the right patient Inspection Is the patient in any pain? Check around the bed Mobility aids O2 Cigarettes Medication Look for any general signs –...

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PR exam

Indications Change of Bowel habit – constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus Rectal bleeding Perianal symptoms e.g. pain/itching/discharge Urinary symptoms in men (for BPH) Assessment of anal tone in neurological exam            ...

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Introduction Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in the fibrosis and destruction of intra-hepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This can lead to cholestasis, hypertension and liver failure. Epidemiology 75%...

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Pyloric Stenosis

Epidemiology More common in boys (4:1) Often a maternal family history Increased risk if siblings were affected Erythromycin exposure in first few weeks of life Pathology There is a functional obstruction of the pyloric...

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