RCC – Renal Cell Carcinoma

Introduction This is an adenocarcinoma These arise from the proximal tubular epithelium. The tumours are highly vascular, and microscopically, they will appear as large cells with clear cytoplasm. Haemorrhage within the kidney gives it...

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Stomas

Introduction “Stoma” is the Greek for mouth or opening. In anatomy, a stoma is technically any opening of the body (such as the mouth or anus). However, usually in medicine when we refer to...

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Testicular Cancer

Introduction These are germ cell tumours. There are two main types (these account for 80% of all tumours) Seminoma (dysgerminoma in women). These arise from the seminiferous tubules. They are a low-grade tumour and...

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Testicular Exam

Testicles are normally examined if there is: Pain Swelling Abdominal pain (torsion of testes) Examination Usual stuff – wash hands, check right patient, introduce yourself, explain, get a chpaerone Normally, would do full abdominal...

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Testicular Torsion

Definition This is when the spermatic cord (contains the vas deferens, lymphatic vessels, testicular artery, cremasteric artery, panpiniform plexus (veins), nerve to cremaster, testicular nerves) to a testicle twists therefore cutting off the blood...

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Transplant Reactions

Hyperacute Rejection Occurs within minutes (to hours) – so quick that the surgeon is sometimes able to visualise characteristic changes whilst sill performing the anastomosis of blood vessels. There is rapid agglutination (clumping together...

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Undescended Testes

Introduction Undescended testes (aka cryptorchidism, and sometimes maldescended testes) can be congenital or acquired Usually unilateral Congenital undescended testes affects approximately 3-6% of males at birth <1% remain undescended by the age of 1 year Up to...

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Urinary Retention

Introduction This is the inability to micturated, and it can either be chronic or acute   Acute This is a sudden inability to micturate in the presence of a painful bladder. The bladder may...

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