Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a disorder that occurs due to an excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) Epidemiology Prevalence is approximately 40-60 million Affects M: F with a ratio of 1: 1 Mainly affects people between...

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Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

Summary Acute Kidney Injury – AKI (formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce uraemia, and also often oliguria – a urine output of <400ml/day. It normally occurs over a...

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Acute Limb Ischaemia

Acute limb ischaemia occurs when there is blockage of a peripheral artery, either from a thromboembolism, or sometimes from an embolic plaque. It frequently occurs on a background of peripheral vascular disease. Thrombus in...

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Addison’s Disease – Adrenal Insufficiency

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency occurs where there is destruction of the adrenal cortex and reduced output of adrenal hormones. There are two types of adrenal insufficiency: Primary hypoadrenalism (aka Addison’s disease) Usually due to autoimmune...

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Adrenal Physiology

Introduction This article looks at adrenal physiology and explains the production and effects of adrenal products. For more information on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, secretion of ions, and other effects related to the...

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African Sleeping Sickness

Organism African Sleeping Sickness is one of two diseases cause by Trypanosome parasites Transmission Tsetse fly (bite during the day) Epidemiology African Sleeping Sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (west coast of Africa) Trypanosome...

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Aggressive Behaviour

People prone to aggressive behaviour are at greater risk of mental illness Aggressive and abusive behaviour is also a feature of mental illness 40% of medical staff report being physically assaulted at some point...

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Airway Management

Airway management is an important skill in Emergency Medicine, Critical care (including Intensive care and High Dependency (HDU)) as well as in anaesthetics. Without a sufficient airway, a patient will suffer permanent brain damage...

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Alcoholic Hepatitis

Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be steatosis of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules begin to accumulate in...

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