ACE Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) e.g. ramipril, lisinopril, captopril Mechanism ACE inhibitors competitively inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and thus reduce the generation of angiotensin-II, and also consequently aldosterone. This reduces sodium...

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Achilles Tendinopathy

Introduction The achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Achilles tendinopathy is usually an overuse condition, causing pain, swelling and...

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Introduction The achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Acute injury (i.e. rupture) to the achilles tendon usually occurs from...

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Acne Vulgaris

Introduction Acne vulgaris (often shortened to “Acne”) disorder of the Pilosebaceous Follicles Incredibly common Almost universal in the second decade of life Also affects adults Associated with psychological problems, including depression, anxiety and social...

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Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a disorder that occurs due to an excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) Epidemiology Prevalence is approximately 40-60 million Affects M: F with a ratio of 1: 1 Mainly affects people between...

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Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

Summary Acute Kidney Injury – AKI (formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce uraemia, and also often oliguria – a urine output of <400ml/day. It normally occurs over a...

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Acute Limb Ischaemia

Acute limb ischaemia occurs when there is blockage of a peripheral artery, either from a thromboembolism, or sometimes from an embolic plaque. It frequently occurs on a background of peripheral vascular disease. Thrombus in...

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