Anaemia of Chronic Disease

Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia The anaemia is not related to bone marrow, bleeding or haemolysis,...

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Analgesics

Pain is a common problem, and it is essential that doctors know how to treat it. It is recognised that many psychosocial factors affect people’s perception of pain, in particular of chronic pain. This...

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Anaphylaxis

Introduction Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. Allergic reactions can vary greatly in their severity. This may depend on the quantity and route of allergen exposure, and on the individual. The most severe reactions...

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Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis at the pelvic inlet,...

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Aneurysm and AAA

Definitions An aneurysm is an artery that has a localised dilation, with a permanent diameter of >1.5x that expected of the particular artery. True Aneurysm – the wall of the artery forms the wall...

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Angiography

Introduction Angiography is a technique used to visualise the inside of vessels, in this case, those of the heart. It is used to assess the extent of angina and ischaemic heart disease. It involves...

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Angioplasty (PCI)

Angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention – PCI) Angioplasty – also known as PCI – Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, or PTCA – Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Angioplasty is able to open partially closed vessels before they become totally...

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Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

Introduction Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are usually used in hypertension, HF and post-MI, usually when an ACE-inhibitor has been ineffective or not tolerated. They are also used ot treat diabetic nephropathy. ACE-Inhibitors often...

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Antepartum Hemorrhage (APH)

Introduction Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) describes any PV bleeding after 24 weeks gestation . There can be many causes, but the most common are placenta praevia and placental abruption All bleeds during pregnancy are associated...

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Anti-Histamines

Histamine H1-receptor antagonists These are mostly effective against mast cell activated inflammatory reactions. In asthma, mast cells are involved in the early stages of the reaction, but their role is not great enough to...

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