Antibiotics – drug classes and mechanisms

There are many classes of antibiotics. It is useful to know at least a handful of antibiotics, and what they are useful for.  Below we attempt to summarise the main types of antibiotics, their mechanisms...

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Antibiotics Prescribing Guidelines

Introduction These antibiotic guidelines are intended to give a basic overview of the types of antibiotic used to treat various kinds of infection. They should not be used as clinical guidelines. Resistance patterns and drug...

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Anticholinergics

Anticholinergics (aka antimuscarinic agents) are usually inhaled, but can be given IV in hospital. They are used in respiratory conditions as adjuncts to steroids and β2 receptors agonists. It is also worth remembering that many...

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Anticoagulant Therapy

Warfarin Introduction Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist. It is very useful, because unlike heparins, it can be taken orally. Warfarin acts on the extrinsic pathway, whilst heparin acts on the intrinsic pathway. Warfarin...

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Antiemetics

Introduction Antiemetics are widely used on a daily basis both in and out of hospital. Nausea is a common symptom that you will be expected to manage appropriately, in much the same way as...

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Antipsychotics

Introduction Antipsychotics are also sometimes called neuroleptics or major tranquilizers. There are two types of antipsychotic drugs; first generation (typical antipsychotics) and atypical antipsychotics. There is debate about how to classify a drug as typical...

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Anxiety and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalised Anxiety Disorder is a common presentation in both primary and secondary care. It is often associated with depression, and can be chronic (often life long) or associated with certain acute life stresses. Epidemiology...

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