Anaemia of Chronic Disease

Introduction Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia Chronic kidney disease The anaemia is typically: Normochromic – the...

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Analgesics

Pain is a common problem, and it is essential that doctors know how to treat it. It is recognised that many psychosocial factors affect people’s perception of pain, in particular of chronic pain. This...

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Anaphylaxis

Introduction Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. Allergic reactions can vary greatly in their severity. This may depend on the quantity and route of allergen exposure, and on the individual. The most severe reactions...

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Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis at the pelvic inlet,...

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