Caesarian Section

C-section is major surgery, with real risks, and the decision to perform such an operation should not be taken lightly!   Epidemiology Incidence in increasing, mainly due to the increased diagnoses of fetal distress,...

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Calcium

See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level of calcium cause depression...

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Calcium Channel Blockers

Introduction Calcium channel blockers are a group of medications that use several different mechanisms to disrupt the flow of calcium through calcium channels. They are widely used as antihypertensives and in heart failure, and...

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Calcium, Vitamin D and bone density

Calcium 99% in bone, 1% in blood Obtained through diet (mainly dairy products), absorption controlled by vitamin D.   Calcium Regulation Controlled by Parathyroid hormone, secreted from the parathyroid gland. An increase in PTH,...

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Cannulation

Procedure Find the patient. Check they are the right patient, and then tell them what you are going to do. i.e. ‘we would like to put a needle in you arm so we can...

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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning, also known as the “silent killer” can be a life-threatening situation. CO is an odourless, colourless gas (hence ‘silent’). CO binds to haemoglobin (carboxyhemoglobin) with 240x greater affinity than...

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Cardiac Arrest

​Introduction Cardiac arrest is an ‘arrest’ in the activity of the heart – the heart has stopped beating. There will be no contraction of the heart muscle, but there may still be electrical activity...

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Cardiac Catheterization

Introduction This is not necessarily the same as coronary angiography, although the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Cardiac catheterisation is the process by which you gain catheter access to the veins or arteries...

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Cardiac Tamponade

Introduction Cardiac Tamponade is a condition where the heart become compressed by excess fluid in the pericardium. Compression causes reduced diastolic filling of the heart, which can cause cardiac arrest. The pericardiac sac is...

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