Cardiomyopathy

Introduction Cardiomyopathy is a term used to describe a heart muscle disorder, without an other obvious cardiac abnormality. The European Heart Journal describes it as a: myocardial disorder in which heart muscle is structurally...

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Cardiovascular Physiology

Comparison of skeletal and cardiac muscle Skeletal Muscle Cells The cells are called skeletal muscle fibres. They run the whole length of the muscle. They have hundreds of nuclei, and are formed by the fusion...

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Epidemiology and Aetiology More common in women Typical presentation at age 30-50 Associated with gout, pregnancy, the pill, premenstrual state, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, acromegaly, obesity, amyloidosis Some believe that jobs that involve repetitive flexing...

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Cataracts

A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye. Cataracts tend to cause gradual loss of visual acuity, with normal pupillary response. Cataracts are the most common non-refractive cause of visual impairment...

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Catheterisation

Indications Urinary retention Monitor fluid output (e.g. post-op, renal failure, trauma, sepsis, general illness) – in pretty much all seriously ill patients! – also pre-op to measure urine output during op. Investigation – to...

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Causes of Hepatomegaly

Massive = "CRAM" Cancer – primary and secondary Right heart failure Alcoholic liver disease with fatty infiltration Myeloproliferative diseases (ie Chronic myeloid laekaemia, PRubraVera,Essential Throbocythaemia) Moderate = "FAILL"  all of the above plus Fatty...

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Causes of Splenomegaly

“CHICAGO” C – Cancer H – Haematological malignancies – anaemia, leukaemia, lymphoma, I – Infection (CMV, HEP, HIV, TB, parasitic (malaria)). EBV is the most common community acquired Inflammation – sarcoid, amyloid C – Congestion; portal hypertension A – Autoimmune(RA, SLE)...

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Cellulitis

Introduction Cellulitis is caused by bacterial infection of the dermis layer of the skin and the deeper subcutaneous tissues. Often the infection is due to a break or puncture to the skin which allows...

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Cerebellar Pathways

Region of Cerebellum Anatomical Location Pathway Origin Peduncle Input Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Output Vestibulocerebellum (Archicerebellum) Balance Flocculonodular lobe Vestibulocerebellar Vestibular Nuclei Inferior Mossy fibres Fastigal Nuclei Vestibular nuclei and reticular formation of medulla, and...

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Cerebral Aneurysm

This is localised dilation of an artery within the brain. They rarely occur in veins. They are a major risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage.   Epidemiology & Aetiology Occur in 5% of the population...

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