Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities are a very common cause of spontaneous miscarriage. Most commonly a child with a chromosomal abnormality will not survive to birth. However, there are many cases where the child will survive, although...

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Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure)

Introduction Chronic Kidney Disease – CKD (previously – chronic renal failure) involves a long-standing and often deteriorating reduction in renal function. It is irreversible and generally appears over a period of years. Initially, CKD begins as only...

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Chronic Pain

Introduction Chronic pain has an unclear definition but some examples include: Pain that persists despite adequate time for healing Pain for >12 weeks It is a common presentation to general practice. Chronic pain exists...

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