Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

Delirium is defined as an acute and fluctuating disturbance in level of consciousness, attention and global cognition. Prompt treatment is required to avoid potential brain damage. The underlying mechanism is poorly understood, but believed...

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Dementia

Dementia is a progressive global decline cognitive function, without impairment of consciousness. It is typically defined as a syndrome secondary to one or more of multiple causes, rather than a diagnosis in its own right....

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Depression

Introduction Depression is one of a group of disorders known as the affective mood disorders, and the internalising disorders – other examples include: Affective mood disorder Depression Anxiety Bipolar Disorder The symptoms of these...

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis

Aetiology  Adulthood (20-40)  Coeliac’s disease (transglutaminase)  M:F 2:1 Pathophysiology Deposition of  IgA in papillary dermis causing an immunological cascade Is an immunologic response to chronic stimulation of the gut mucosa. IgA react to gluten-tissue...

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Descending (Motor) Pathways

Tract Location of Upper Motor Neurons Destination Site of Crossover Action CORTICOSPINAL   Corticobulbar   Primary Motor Cortex (pyramidal cells) Cranial Nerves III – XII Brainstem Conscious Motor control of skeletal muscles   Anterior...

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Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, formerly known as congenital dislocation of the hip) describes any abnormality found in the neonatal hip joint. The degree of abnormality varies considerably. The problem may arise from...

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Diabetes Insipidus

Introduction Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterised by the passage of large volumes (>3L/day) of dilute urine due to impaired water resorption by the kidney, because of reduced ADH secretion from the posterior pituitary...

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Diabetic Foot Check

In diabetes it is important to check distal circulation. Diabetes affects blood vessels, causing a loss of blood supply that can lead to ischemia and tissues damage. This is particularly the case in the...

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