Dyslipidaemia

Introduction Dyslipidaemia (often interchangeably used with hyperlipidaemia) describes raised levels of cholesterol in the blood. This is significant because it is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The lipid hypothesis suggests (and is strongly...

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Dysmenorrhoea

Introduction Dysmenorrhoea refers to pain on menstruation, typically felt as abdominal cramps. It is a common disorder, particularly in teenagers, with up to 60% of young women experiencing symptoms. It is the most common...

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Dysphagia

Introduction Dysphagia literally means ‘trouble swallowing’. It is not a condition in itself, but a symptom. There can be many causes varying from a muscular spasm or neurological cause, to oesophageal malignancy. As a...

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Dystocia

Dystocia means difficulty during labour. It occurs in about 1% of deliveries. Breech presentation can cause dystocia. Aetiology Diabetes mellitus Fetal macrosomia –  – often caused by maternal diabetes Maternal obesity Induction of labour...

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