Gallstones

Introduction Gallstones and biliary disease can be a bit confusing, and there is a lot of overlap. Essentially, gallstones themselves are not problematic in the vast majority of cases, but can predispose the other...

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GALS Examination

Introduction This stands for: Gait Arms Legs Spine The exam is a quick way of screening for musculoskeletal dysfunction. Most of the exam can be done without actually having to touch the patient, just...

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Gastric Physiology

Introduction The stomach can be roughly divided into two regions, which contain two different lots of cells, with different functions Oxyntic glandular area – this contains oxyntic (parietal cells) that secrete gastric juice and...

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Gastric Tumours

Summary Unless otherwise stated, the article below refers to gastric adenocarcinoma Epidemiology The second most common cancer worldwide (behind lung cancer) Most common in South America and Japan (due to diet) 8th most common...

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Giant Cell Arteritis

Introduction Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) aka Temporal Arteritis Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of the arteries. In GCA, inflamed superficial temporal or occipital arteries cause pain. Touching the skin over these vessels...

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Giardiasis

Organism Giardia lamblia Flagellate protozoan – lives in duodenum or jejunum. Incubation= 7days-3months Transmission Faecal-oral/ from pets or birds (humans are main reservoir of infection) Typically from drinking water contaminated with giardia cysts (killed...

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Glaucoma

Introduction  Definition of glaucoma – gradual death of the optic nerve often associated with high intraocular pressure. Increase intraocular pressure is usually due to an imbalance in aqueous humour production and drainage. The Aqueous...

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Glomerulonephritis (GN)

Introduction  This term is often used to describe all pathological conditions of the glomerulus; however, strictly speaking it refers to “inflammation of the glomerulus”.  Glomerulonephritis represents a number of conditions where there is damage...

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