Headache

Headache is a very common problem. The vast majority of headaches, even though they can be disabling for patients, will be benign. Important points in the history Pattern Intermittent Continuous Diurnal variation / time...

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Hearing Loss in Adults

Common causes External meatus blocked by wax Presbyacusis Sensorineural hearing loss Presbyacusis Loss of hair cells on cochlear as increase in age Audiogram; High frequencies lost first, low frequencies stay in normal range, no...

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Heart Failure

Introduction Heart failure (also CCF –¬†congestive cardiac failure)¬†is a clinical syndrome which refers to a state of reduced cardiac output. Typically it is defined as: The inability of the heart to pump adequate amounts...

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Henoch Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

Introduction Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) is a vasculitis that most commonly occurs in children. It is the most common vasculitis of childhood, and typically presents in children aged between 2-8. In 50% of cases there...

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Hepatic Encephelopathy

West Haven criteria for grading hepatic encephalopathy Grade 1: Trivial lack of awareness. Impaired attention span. Altered sleep, euphoria or depression. Mild asterixis may be present. Grade 2: Lethargy or apathy. Disorientation. Inappropriate behavior....

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Hepatitis A

Aetiology and Epidemiology Hepatitis A is most common hepatitis virus. It is often seen in epidemics (usually in children), and most commonly occurs in the autumn Often found in communities with overcrowding Commonly found...

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Hepatitis B

Introduction Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, and there are believed to be over 350 million...

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Hepatitis C

Introduction First discovered in 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is blood-borne form of viral hepatitis. The incubation period is 6-9 weeks. Transmission is usually via blood products or vertical transmission from mother to...

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