Hydration Status

Introduction There may be clues in the history. E.g.: Patient feels thirsty Admitted for poor fluid intake Sepsis Bleeding Vomiting Bowel obstruction Inspection Look around the bed for clues. E.g. fluid restriction signs, catheter...

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Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis is the state produced by excessive thyroid hormone. It is not strictly the same thing as hyperthyroidism, as thyrotoxicosis can exist without hyperthyroidism being present – for example – after the administration...

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Hypertrophic Caromyopathy (HCM)

Introduction Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also known as Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM), is an autosomal dominant disorder, where there is thickening (hypertrophy) of the myocardium, particularly of the left ventricle, without an underlying cause. It is...

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Hypopituitarism

Introduction Hypopituitarism entails reduced secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Which hormones go first? Anterior pituitary hormones are affected in the following order: GH >> muscle and bone FSH >> ovary LH >> testes Polactin >> breast TSH >> thyroid ACTH >> kidney and adrenal gland N.B....

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Hypothyroidism

Introduction Hypothyroidism (aka myxoedema) This is quite common, and easy to treat. As the symptoms can be non-specific, be on the lookout, particularly in women over 40. The two main causes are: Primary disease...

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Hysterectomy

Introduction Three types of operation: Abdominal – TAH – Total Abdominal Hysterectomy This is the most common form of surgery performed in the UK Vaginal – VH – Vaginal Hyesterectomy Laparoscopic – LAVH –...

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