Incontinence

Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15% of women and 10%...

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Incontinence in Children

Urinary incontinence The most common cause in children >5Y is detrusor instability. Common reversible causes: UTI, constipation, emotional stress. Diagnosis requires a full voiding and bowel history with examination to exclude neurological disorders. Treatment...

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Infant and Neonatal Nutrition

General Info Breastfeeding is superior to bottle feeding and should always be encouraged It can be difficult to learn, and is best taught by an experienced health care professional, in a supporting environment It...

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Infective Endocarditis

Introduction Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a condition caused by infection of the endocardium by bacteria, or rarely, fungus. It most commonly affects the heart valves (natural or prosthetic), but can occur anywhere along the...

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Inhaled Corticosteroids

These are used for their anti-inflammatory effects in asthma. They are very effective in asthma, but are of limited use in COPD. Mechanism If you want lots of info on steroids, see the Cushing’s...

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Inhalers

There are loads of types of inhalers! You need to be able to tell a patient how to use each type, and what type of drugs can go in each type. With all inhalers,...

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Interstitial Lung Disease / Pulmonary Fibrosis

Introduction These diseases affect the lung interstitium, i.e. the space between the alveolar epithelium and the capillary endothelium, causing inflammation and fibrosis.   What is Pulmonary Fibrosis? This can be a source of confusion...

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Introduction to Abdominal Exam

For a detailed walkthrough of abdominal examination, please see the Abdominal Examination article INTRODUCTION… ·         Wash hands ·         Check patient name/DOB/hospital number ·         Introduce- “My name is…” ·         Consent – Explain what your going...

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Introduction to Cardiovascular Exam

For a detailed walkthrough of the cardiovascular examination, please go to the Cardiovascular Examination OSCE section INTRODUCTION Wash hands Introduce- “My name is…” Consent – “I have been asked to examine your heart, this...

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