Large Bowel Obstruction

Introduction Typically causes a less severe disease than small bowel obstruction Symptoms are more gradual in onset There are often loud borborygmi (normal bowel sounds) Rectum is usually empty, and the abdomen is non-tender...

More

Leishmaniasis

Organism Leishmania (protozoa) Transmission Via sandflies Leishmania anastigotes infect sandflies when they take them up with their blood meal. Pathogenesis The adult female sand ingests the pathogen in the form as amastigotes when feeding...

More

Leprosy

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease Organism mycobacterium leprae = intracellular parasite. Incubation period tuberculoid = 2-5 years lepromatous = 8-11 years   Transmission Spread in nasal discharges to the skin or nose. Infectivity...

More

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis: also known as Weil’s Disease Organism Spirochaete bacterium called Leptospira spp incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Via the urine of an infected animal (contagious as long as it is still moist) Rats, mice, and moles are important...

More

Leukaemia

Introduction Leukaemia is a broad term, applied to a range of blood cell cancers. The leukaemias can be classified as acute or chronic, and sub-classified as myeloid or lymphoid.  Thus, there are four classifications: ALL...

More

Leukotriene Antagonists

Introduction These are given in oral tablet form and are used to treat severe chronic asthma. They are only ever used in conjunction with corticosteroids. Mechanism They block the LTD4 receptor on smooth muscle,...

More

Lid Disease

Chalazion Granuloma of meibomian glands (reactions to accumulation of lipid following duct blockage) Initially a hard and inflamed lump in the lid, settles to leave a discrete lump, visible on lid eversion Often settle...

More