Lid Disease

Chalazion Granuloma of meibomian glands (reactions to accumulation of lipid following duct blockage) Initially a hard and inflamed lump in the lid, settles to leave a discrete lump, visible on lid eversion Often settle...

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Liver Physiology

Function The two roles of the liver are: Processing of absorbed materials Excretion of unwanted products and secretion of stuff to help with fat digestion Structure The liver is divided into many thousands of...

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Loop Diuretics

Introduction Loop diuretics are the strongest type of diuretic – they cause an increase in the excretion of sodium and water from the kidney. They are very effective, and prevent the reabsoprtion of about 25%...

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Lower Back Pain

Introduction Lower back pain is a very common presentation to general practice and emergency departments Lower back pain for at least 5% of all general practice presentations 80% of people will have one or...

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Lower Limb Examination

The key aim is to identify the anatomical site of the lesion: central (UMN – brain and spinal cord)versus peripheral (LMN – nerve roots and peripheral nerves). • NB – neurological examination of the...

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Lung Cancer

Introduction When we talk about lung cancer, we are generally referring to tumour of the bronchus. 95% of lung cancers are carcinoma of the bronchus 2% are alveolar tumours 3% are benign or less...

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Lyme Disease

Organism Borrelia Burgdorferi (spirochaete) Incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Vector=ticks Animal hosts=deer/rodents Epidemiology Commonest vector borne illness in USA Focally endemic in woodland of north America – infections mostly occur in summer. Pathogenesis Tick bite...

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