Malaria

Introduction Presentation can be vague, any or all of wide variety of symptoms. Always should be considered in unwell patients returning from or having passed though endemic areas Organism Parasite is a plasmodium (protozoan)....

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Malignant Hypertension

Introduction Malignant hypertension is very high blood pressure that comes on suddenly and quickly. The diastolic BP reading (normally <80mmHg) is often >130mmHg, and systolic is usually >200mmHg. Aetiology Affects ~1% of people with...

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Marfan Syndrome

Introduction Marfan Syndrome (sometime Marfan’s Syndrome) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder. Epidemiology and Aeitiology 25% of cases occur without family history Reduced life expectancy – average is around 60 Pathology The result...

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Measles

Introduction Now relatively rare in the UK Older children have more severe disease Caused by the Morbillivirus, which is a type of paramyoxovirus This is a single stranded, enveloped RNA virus It is a...

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Mechanical Back Pain

Introduction Mechanical back pain (aka lumbago, lower back pain) is a term used to describe musculoskeletal lower back pain. It is extremely common, with about 80% of those in Western Society experiencing it at...

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Medication Overuse Headache

Introduction Medication overuse headache (AKA rebound headache) usually occurs in patients with a past medical history of severe headache, for which they have frequently/ excessively used analgesics. Clinical Features Chronic headache occurring >15 days...

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Memantine

Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist and is licensed for use in moderate-severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mechanism of Action Memantine is an NMDA antagonist (AKA Glutamate receptor antagonist) NMDA receptor found on post synaptic...

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Menopause

Introduction Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle Occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 Typical age is 51.5 Premature menopause is defined as menopause before the age of 40 – aka premature...

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