Menopause

Introduction Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle Occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 Typical age is 51.5 Premature menopause is defined as menopause before the age of 40 – aka premature...

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Menorrhagia

Introduction Menorrhagia describes abnormally heavy bleeding (often associated with increased period pain) during periods. It is a common presenting compliant, and a cause is not always found. Endometrial carcinoma would always be considered as...

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Mental State Exam

Appearance and behaviour How does the patient enter the room? quickly? slowly? What is the patient’s attitude to the interview? aggressive? reluctant? Can you build a rapport with them? can you engage them? Eye...

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Migraine

Introduction Migraine is a common cause of headache affecting about 15% of individuals. Headaches are typically recurrent, and last anywhere up o 72 hours. They are typically associated with nausea and photophobia, and rarely...

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Mitral Regurgitation

Causes Rule of two’s Heart LV dilatation Annular Calcification Infective Infective Endocarditis Rheumatic Heart Fever    Connective Tissue Disorders Marfan Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Appetite Suppressants           Signs Pansystolic murmur best heard in the mitral area, radiating to...

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Monitoring and Complications of Diabetes

We treat diabetes to reduce the risk of the complications of diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes. So it is important to monitor that treatment is effective,...

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Mood Stabilisers

Mood Stabilisers e.g. lithium, valproate, gabapentin, carbamazepine These are mainly used to treat bipolar disorder although they may be used in lots of other psychiatric conditions. Lithium Lithium has a narrow therapeutic window, as...

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Morphine

Introduction Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in acute and chronic pain. It has been around for a very long time! It can be given intravenously, intramuscularly and orally. In emergency medicine it is...

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Motor Neuron Disease (MND)

Introduction Relatively common disease, seen worldwide. There is degeneration of motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord, affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. MND never causes sensory problems   MND is...

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MRC Dyspnoea Scale in COPD

Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale in COPD 1: Not troubles by breathlessness except on strenuous exercise. 2: Short of breath when hurrying or walking up a slight hill. 3: Walks slower than contemporaries on...

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