Nappy Rash

Introduction Nappy rash (or for the more technically minded Napkin dermatitis, and in the US diaper rash) is a term used to describe several disorders of the skin in the region of the nappy. Most commonly...

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Nausea and Vomiting in Palliative Care

Nausea = sensation of the desire to vomit Vomiting = action of expelling GI contents via mouth (usually an involuntary reflex) Causes of nausea ​and vomiting in palliative patients Cancer e.g. brain metastasis or...

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Neonatal Jaundice

Introduction Neonatal Jaundice is very common, with 60% of babies being jaundiced at some point. It is however, often very worrying for parents, and for clinicians, the challenge is distinguishing ‘harmless’ physiological/breastfeeding jaundice from jaundice...

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Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome The patient will present with a triad of symptoms: Proteinuria , i.e. >3g/24hr Hypoalbuminaemia , i.e. <30g/L Oedema To avoid overlooking this diagnosis, carry out a urine dipstick test on all patients with oedema,...

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Nerve Entrapment

NERVE SYMPTOMS MUSCLE WEAKNESS/WASTING AREA SENSORY LOSS MEDIAN (at wrist) Carpal tunnel syndrome Pain and paraesthesia on palmer aspect hands and fingers, waking pt from sleep. Pain may extend to arm and shoulder   Abductor...

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Neurodegenerative Disease – Comparison

Disease Epidemiology and Aetiology Pathology Onset and Progression Clinical Features Investigations Treatment Parkinson’s Disease Present in 0.5-1% of the over 60’s Cause essentially unknown. Some cases due to rare genetic defects, other cases the...

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Neurofibromatosis

There are two types of neurofibromatosis, both inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, although some cases arise from spontaneous mutation. It results in benign tumours of the nervous system and bony and dermatological deformities....

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Non-Accidental Injury

Introduction There are three main categories of environmental hazard for a growing child: Accidents, poisoning and abuse. The parents and other family members are mostly responsible for minimizing the risk of hazard, but social...

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Normal Control of BP

The physics Flow = pressure difference / resistance Thus, the two main factors in determining flow are pressure within a vessel, and the resistance of a vessel. Velocity The velocity of flow is inversely...

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