Obesity, Diet and Nutrition

Introduction WHO estimates prevalence of obesity has tripled since 1970s In 2016 – 2 billion adults worldwide were overweight or obese In Australia, 2/3rdof people are overweight or obese Due to increase in availability...

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Obstructive Jaundice

Introduction Obstructive Jaundice is a fairly common presentation to the emergency department and surgical teams. The most common cause is gallstones. You may also want to read about Gallstones and Jaundice for more information....

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Oesophageal Tumours

Summary There are 4 types of oesophageal tumour; adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, leiomyoma and squamous papilloma. Squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are by far the most common. Squamous cell carcinoma Epidemiology 2-3 per 100 000...

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Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Introduction Osgood Schlatter Disease (OSD) is a painful condition in which there is injury to the tibial tuberosity where it joins with the patellar tendon. It is commonly found in adolescents, particularly who participate...

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Osmotic Diuretics

Osmotic diuretics e.g. mannitol These are basically just drugs that are filtered at the glomerulus and then not reabsorbed along the nephron, thus resulting in a greater osmotic pressure within the tubular fluid, and...

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Osteoarthritis – OA

Introduction Osteoarthritis is a condition that results from the loss of cartilage at synovial joints, and is often accompanied by degeneration of the underlying bone. Radiologically there can be visible: Osteophytes Joint space narrowing...

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Osteochondroma

Introduction Osteochondromas are benign tumours of bone and cartilage. They frequently grow outwards from bone near the growth plate (metaphysis) and can be palpated. They most commonly occur on the knee, proximal femur or...

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Osteomalacia and Rickets

Introduction These are essentially the same disorder. In children, the disease is rickets but after fusion of the epiphyseal plates it is known as osteomalacia. The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency. The...

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Osteomyelitis

Introduction Osteomyelitis refers to infection of the bone and/or bone marrow. It can occur in both adults and children but is more common in the latter. It is commonly caused by Staph A, Pseudomonas,...

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Osteoporosis

Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in post-menopausal women Use of...

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