Paediatric Abdominal Exam

Below is a brief summary of what to check for in a paediatric abdominal examination. For a detailed explanation of these features, and for adult abdominal examination, please see the abdominal examination article.  ...

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Paediatric Respiratory Exam

General Inspection How old is the child? You will probably have to adapt the exam accordingly! Generally, you could put the children into three categories depending on their age: 0-6months, 6-24 months and 2...

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Paediatric Vital Signs

Age Heart rate (bpm) Respiratory rate (/min) Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) Under 4 months 110-160 30-39 60-80 4 months-2 years 100-149 25-34 70-90 2-5 years 80-119 20-29 90-129 5-12 years 70-119 20-29 90-129 Over...

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Paget Disease of the Bone

Introduction Along with osteoporosis, Paget disease of the bone (PDB) – aka osteitis deformans –  is a common degenerative bone disease. It affects up to 5% of the population in Anglo-Saxon societies. PBD is a disorder of...

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Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

Introduction A malignant disease which has an eczematous appearance, involving the nipple. It is commonly associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ. It is associated with 2% of all cases of breast cancer....

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Pain in Palliative Care

Pain = unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with physical, psychological, spiritual and social aspects. Assessment of pain It is important to remember that pain is a symptom and not a diagnosis.  The key to...

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Pancreatic Cancer

Introduction Pancreatic cancers are 95% exocrine, adenocarcinomas. These affect the duct or surround the duct. The remaining 5% are neuroendocrine tumours e.g. insulinomas, glucagonomas (the former being the more common). This article pertains to...

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Pancreatitis

Introduction Pancreatitis is a condition involving inflammation of the pancreas. It can be acute or chronic; acute pancreatitis can return to normal after resolution of the episode, conversely chronic pancreatitis, is continuing inflammation, often with irreversible...

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Paracetamol

Introduction Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used anti-pyrexic and analgesic, with similar efficacy in these areas to aspirin, however, unlike aspirin and NSAIDs it has virtually no anti-inflammatory properties. It is the first analgesic...

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Parathyroid Glands

Introduction  The parathyroid glands control the level of calcium and phosphates in the blood. Phosphate levels can vary up to 2-3x the normal level without causing major problems Calcium levels have to be much...

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