Parkinson’s Disease

Summary Epidemiology Mean age of onset between 45-60 Prevalence is 0.5-1% of the over 60’s in the UK 2nd most common neurodegenerative disease (after Alzheimer’s) Aetiology Parkinsonism is most commonly caused by ideopathic Parkinson’s...

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Patterns of Disease Inheritance

Introduction Mendelian inheritance is a term sometimes used to describe patterns of inheritance, based on the original ideas of dominant and recessive genes, first proposed by the Gregorian Monk Mendel. Determining patterns of inheritance...

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PDA – Patent Ductus Arteriosus

PDA – Patent Ductus Arteriosus – L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC   Treatment Usually treated even if asymptomatic to reduce the risk of infective endocarditis Usually involves cardiac catheterisation whereby a coil is introduced to...

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Peptic Ulcer Disease

Summary Epidemiology More common in men than women DU’s and 2-3x as common as GU’s Aetiology H. pylori infection Smoking –reduces prostaglandin synthesis Alcohol intake NSAID use – reduced prostaglandin synthesis Pathology H. pylori produces...

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Pericarditis

The normal pericardium This contains about 50ml of fluid, and help lubricate the movement of the heart. It helps to: Limit distension of the heart Protect the heart from infection / damage Aids the...

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Peripheral Neuropathy

Introduction All peripheral nerves are myelinated, except C fibres – which carry information about pain. These C fibres are sometimes called ‘slow fibres’ because the signal travels slowly due to the lack of myelination....

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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

Introduction Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is due to atherosclerosis of arteries in the limbs. The level of arterial occlusion present is proportional to the symptoms. The pathogenesis and risk factors are the same as...

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Peripheral Vascular Exam

Introduction introduce yourself wash your hands check you’ve got the right patient Inspection Is the patient in any pain? Check around the bed Mobility aids O2 Cigarettes Medication Look for any general signs –...

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Peritonitis

Introduction This is inflammation of the peritoneum. It can be generalised or localised, and is often associated with rupture of an internal organ, e.g. as occurs in trauma. In usually represents a surgical emergency....

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