Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome – PCOS (aka Hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with systemic features, including acne, decreased fertility, excessive andorgen secretion...

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Polycythaemia Vera

Polycythaemia is a raised RBC count, haemoglobin and packed cell volume/haematocrit Absolute increase in red cell mass: polycythemia vera, secondary to hypoxia or abnormal EPO secretion Apparent polycythemia: plasma volume reduced, red cell mass...

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Polymyalgia Rheumatica – PMR

Introduction Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition which causes bilateral pain, typically worse in the morning and associated with morning stiffness, in the shoulder, neck and pelvic girdle. It is rarely seen...

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Post-Natal Care

Definitions Term baby – between 37 – 41 weeks Pre-term baby – before 37 weeks Post term baby – after 42 weeks Neonate – <28 days old Stillbirth – dead baby delivered after 24...

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Postpartum Haemorrhage

Introduction Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to abnormal bleeding after pregnancy. It is typically defined as primary (typically with 24 hours of delivery) or secondary (usually after discharge home). Primary postpartum haemorrhage is the most...

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Postural Hypotension

Postural hypotension is a transient fall in hypotension which causes symptoms when a patient moves from sitting to standing. Physiology Moment to moment, blood pressure is controlled by the vasovagal reflex system. This maintains...

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Potassium

The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+ INSIDE cells Insulin Aldosterone...

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Potassium Sparing Diuretics

Introduction Potassium sparing diuretics inhibit the reabsorption of sodium (and water) from the distal tubule by antagonising aldosterone. They have only a relatively weak diuretic effect. They reduce potassium excretion (hence the name “potassium...

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