Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (aka hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with excessive andorgen secretion and insulin resistance.   Typical patients...

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Polycythaemia Vera

Polycythaemia is a raised RBC count, haemoglobin and packed cell volume/haematocrit Absolute increase in red cell mass: polycythemia vera, secondary to hypoxia or abnormal EPO secretion Apparent polycythemia: plasma volume reduced, red cell mass...

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Polymyalgia Rheumatica – PMR

Introduction Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition which causes bilateral pain, typically worse in the morning and associated with morning stiffness, in the shoulder, neck and pelvic girdle. It is rarely seen...

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Post Coital Bleeding

Causes Infection Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis (rarer cause) Risk factors – ask about partners (number of partners, protection, Hx of sexually transmitted infection etc) Ask about other symptoms –discharge, pain Cervical / endometrial polyps May...

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Post-Natal Care

Definitions Term baby – between 37 – 41 weeks Pre-term baby – before 37 weeks Post term baby – after 42 weeks Neonate – <28 days old Stillbirth – dead baby delivered after 24...

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Postural Hypotension

Postural hypotension is a transient fall in hypotension which causes symptoms when a patient moves from sitting to standing. Physiology Moment to moment, blood pressure is controlled by the vasovagal reflex system. This maintains...

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Potassium

The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+ INSIDE cells Insulin Aldosterone...

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Potassium Sparing Diuretics

Introduction Potassium sparing diuretics inhibit the reabsorption of sodium (and water) from the distal tubule by antagonising aldosterone. They have only a relatively weak diuretic effect. They reduce potassium excretion (hence the name “potassium...

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