PR exam

Indications Change of Bowel habit – constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus Rectal bleeding Perianal symptoms e.g. pain/itching/discharge Urinary symptoms in men (for BPH) Assessment of anal tone in neurological exam            ...

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Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia

Introduction Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are different stages of the same condition. Pre-eclampsia can result in eclampsia at any time. Eclampsia is immediately life-threatening and often symptomatic. Pre-eclampsia is a condition characterised by increased blood...

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Introduction Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in the fibrosis and destruction of intra-hepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This can lead to cholestasis, hypertension and liver failure. Epidemiology 75%...

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Propofol

Introduction Propofol is a drug widely used for sedation and general anaesthesia. It also gained notoriety for its involvement in the death of Michael Jackson. It usually comes in a solution of 200mg in...

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Proptosis

Orbital cellulitis Ophthalmic emergency, infection of soft tissues behind orbital septum extension of infection from periorbital structures (ethmoid sinusitis), face, globe, lacrimal sac or dental infection direct inoculation of orbit from trauma haematogenous spread...

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Prostate Cancer

Introduction By the age of 80, >80% of men have prostate cancer It is the second most common cancer in men, and the 4th most common cause of death for men in England and Wales....

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Prostatitis

Introduction Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate, most commonly a result of infection (either UTI or STI). Prostatitis affects up to 15% of men at some point in the lives. We can divide...

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Proximal Tubule Diuretics

Proximal tubule diuretics e.g. acetazolidamide These drugs are carbonic anyhrdrase blockers. Some sodium is reabsorbed in conjunction with hydrogen. This process relies on the carbonic anhydrase to catalyse the reaction of hydrogen with bicarbonate...

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