PR exam

Indications Change of Bowel habit – constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus Rectal bleeding Perianal symptoms e.g. pain/itching/discharge Urinary symptoms in men (for BPH) Assessment of anal tone in neurological exam            ...

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Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia

Introduction Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are different stages of the same condition. Pre-eclampsia is often asymptomatic, but can be detected with a combination of hypertension and proteinuria (or thrombocytopenia – low platelets) and it can result...

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Pregnancy – rhesus status

Introduction Assessing the maternal Rhesus status is an important part of any pregnancy. Rhesus positive babies born to Rhesus negative mothers can be affected by haemolytic disease of the newborn. This can be easily prevented...

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Premature Ventricular Complexes (PVCs)

Introduction Premature Ventricular Complexes – PVCs (aka ventricular ectopic beats – VEBs) are a common, and usually (but not always) benign cardiac rhythm abnormality. PVCs may present with palpitations, although many cases are asymptomatic....

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Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Introduction Premenstrual syndrome refers to a group of physical and psychological symptoms that occur in there 2-14 days before menstruation, and tend to resolve as soon as menstruation begins. Symptoms occur during the luteal...

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Introduction Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in the fibrosis and destruction of intra-hepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This can lead to cholestasis, hypertension and liver failure. Epidemiology 75%...

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Propofol

Introduction Propofol is a drug widely used for sedation and general anaesthesia. It also gained notoriety for its involvement in the death of Michael Jackson. It usually comes in a solution of 200mg in...

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Proptosis

Orbital cellulitis Ophthalmic emergency, infection of soft tissues behind orbital septum extension of infection from periorbital structures (ethmoid sinusitis), face, globe, lacrimal sac or dental infection direct inoculation of orbit from trauma haematogenous spread...

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