Rabies

Organism Viral zoonosis RNA rhabdovirus Incubation: 9-90 days   Transmission Spread by bites from infected mammals (saliva) Risk of transmission when bitten by rabid animal is <50% Epidemiology Dogs (+wolves and jackals) are main...

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Rashes of Childhood

Type of Rash Appearance Associated Conditions Maculopapular Macules – flat erythematous areas of skin Papules – raised erythematous areas of skin Both will blanch under pressure Measles Rubella (only macules) HHV6 / HHV7 Enterovirus...

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Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Introduction The Raynaud phenomenon – RP – (also Reynaud’s Syndrome, Raynaud’s disease or simply Reynaud’s) is a vascular condition whereby there is excessive arterial vasoconstriction, most commonly in the hands, in response to cold...

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RCC – Renal Cell Carcinoma

Introduction This is an adenocarcinoma These arise from the proximal tubular epithelium. The tumours are highly vascular, and microscopically, they will appear as large cells with clear cytoplasm. Haemorrhage within the kidney gives it...

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Reactive Arthritis

Reiter’s Syndrome aka Reactive arthritis This acute form of spondyloarthritis is associated with STI’s and acute diarrhoea. Usually occurs shortly after the initial infection, although it is still an autoimmune reaction. Aetiology Associated with...

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Recurrent Cough

Recurrent Cough This is a very common complain for children. Common causes include: Asthma – the most common cause of childhood cough. Typically symptoms (such as wheeze and breathlessness may not always be present,...

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Refugee Health

Introduction Managing the health of refugees can be complex. Many refugees have little experience of organised healthcare, and may have come from places of extreme poverty and danger and may have suffered physical and...

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Renal Physiology

Introduction Cortical nephrons make up 85% of nephrons. Juxtamedullary nephrons make up 15% of nephrons. There is a visceral epithelium that covers the glomerular capillaries inside Bowmann’s capsule. This is just one cell thick,...

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Renal Replacement Therapy

Introduction The different types of renal replacement therapies include haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, haemofiltration, and renal transplation. Haemodialysis (HD) This can be carried out on an outpatient or an inpatient basis. In the context of this explanation it is...

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