Renal Stones

Introduction Renal stones are precipitates that form from urine due to a high concentration of that particular precipitate in the urine. The most common (85%) precipitate is calcium;  particularly calcium oxalate, about 10% are...

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Renin Inhibitors

  Mechanism of action Renin Inhibitors act by > directly inhibit renin! Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I Renin inhibitors (Aliskiren) competes with angiotensinogen for the active site of the renin enzyme Reduces plasm...

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Respiratory Examination

For a quick overview of the respiratory system exam, please see the Introduction to Respiratory Exam article   General Instructions Always examine the patient from their right. Make sure you get consent at the...

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Respiratory Infections

General Overview Respiratory disorders in children are extremely common. The incidence generally decline with age, such that in middle teenage years, they are rare. Children <5 will have on average 6-8 RTI’s per year...

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Respiratory Physiology

Inspiration is an active process, but normal expiration is a passive process. Forced expiration recruits the abdominal muscles to help force out air.   Muscles of breathing Diaphragm – this is the main muscle...

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Restrictive vs Obstructive lung disease

Normal Lung function on spirometry Note the shape of the graph: Fast rising in the first 1 second –  FEV1>80% FVC Flat plateau   Obstructive lung disease COPD Asthma Bronchiectasis CF Characteristics ‘Obstructive pattern’...

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Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic disease which causes progressive and irreversible damage to the retina, resulting in blindness. It affects about 1 in 4,000 people. There are at least 50 genes known to cause...

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Retroverted Uterus

Introduction The normal position of the uterus is anteverted. In this position, the uterus is concave on the side of the bladder, and bends round to sit just above and behind the bladder. In...

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Rhabdomyolysis

Introduction Rhabdomyolysis is the result of breakdown of muscle tissue, with the subsequent release of muscle products into the bloodstream. Aetiology Causes Trauma – most common Prolonged immobilisation Drug reactions – e.g. statins, fibrates,...

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction RA is a type of inflammatory arthritis. Other examples include seronegative spondyarthritides, reactive arthritis, lyme arthritis, crystal arthritis and postviral arthritis. Features of inflammatory arthritis Pain and stiffness worse in the morning and...

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