Reactive Arthritis

Reiter’s Syndrome aka Reactive arthritis This acute form of spondyloarthritis is associated with STI’s and acute diarrhoea. Usually occurs shortly after the initial infection, although it is still an autoimmune reaction. Aetiology Associated with...

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Recurrent Cough

Recurrent Cough This is a very common complain for children. Common causes include: Asthma – the most common cause of childhood cough. Typically symptoms (such as wheeze and breathlessness may not always be present,...

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Refugee and Migrant Health

Introduction Managing the health of refugees and migrants can be complex. Many refugees have little experience of organised healthcare, and may have come from places of extreme poverty and danger and may have suffered...

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Renal Physiology

Introduction Cortical nephrons make up 85% of nephrons. Juxtamedullary nephrons make up 15% of nephrons. There is a visceral epithelium that covers the glomerular capillaries inside Bowmann’s capsule. This is just one cell thick,...

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Renal Replacement Therapy

Introduction The different types of renal replacement therapies include haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, haemofiltration, and renal transplation. Haemodialysis (HD) This can be carried out on an outpatient or an inpatient basis. In the context of this explanation it is...

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Renal Stones

Introduction Renal stones are precipitates that form from urine due to a high concentration of that particular precipitate in the urine. The most common (85%) precipitate is calcium;  particularly calcium oxalate, about 10% are...

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Renin Inhibitors

  Mechanism of action Renin Inhibitors act by > directly inhibit renin! Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I Renin inhibitors (Aliskiren) competes with angiotensinogen for the active site of the renin enzyme Reduces plasm...

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Respiratory Examination

For a quick overview of the respiratory system exam, please see the Introduction to Respiratory Exam article   General Instructions Always examine the patient from their right. Make sure you get consent at the...

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Respiratory Infections

General Overview Respiratory disorders in children are extremely common. The incidence generally decline with age, such that in middle teenage years, they are rare. Children <5 will have on average 6-8 RTI’s per year...

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