Reactive Arthritis

Introduction Reactive arthritis is an acute form of spondyloarthritis associated with STI’s and acute diarrhoea. Usually occurs shortly after the initial infection, although the reactive arthritis itself is an autoimmune reaction. Aetiology Associated with STI...

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Recurrent Cough

Recurrent Cough This is a very common complain for children. Common causes include: Asthma ‚Äď the most common cause of childhood cough. Typically symptoms (such as wheeze and breathlessness may not always be present,...

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Refugee and Migrant Health

Introduction Managing the health of refugees and migrants can be complex. Many refugees have little experience of organised healthcare, and may have come from places of extreme poverty and danger and may have suffered...

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Renal Physiology

Introduction Renal physiology is complicated. Don’t worry too much if you don’t feel like you have a full grasp of it – most of us don’t! It seems to be something that only medical...

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Renal Replacement Therapy

Introduction The different types of renal replacement therapies include haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, haemofiltration, and renal transplation. Haemodialysis (HD) This can be carried out on an outpatient or an inpatient basis. In the context of this explanation it is...

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Renin Inhibitors

  Mechanism of action Renin Inhibitors act by > directly inhibit renin! Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I Renin inhibitors (Aliskiren) competes with angiotensinogen for the active site of the renin enzyme Reduces plasm...

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Respiratory Examination

For a quick overview of the respiratory system exam, please see the Introduction to Respiratory Exam article General Instructions Always examine the patient from their right. Make sure you get consent at the start...

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Respiratory Infections

General Overview Respiratory disorders in children are extremely common. The incidence generally decline with age, such that in middle teenage years, they are rare. Children <5 will have on average 6-8 RTI’s per year...

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Respiratory Physiology

Inspiration is an active process, but normal expiration is a passive process. Forced expiration recruits the abdominal muscles to help force out air.   Muscles of breathing Diaphragm – this is the main muscle...

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