Speech Disorders

Expressive dysphasia People understand commands, but are unable to find the words to respond appropriately. To test for this, ask them to do basic motor tasks (e.g. close eyes), put hands on head. Then...

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Spinal Cord Compression

Physiology and anatomy The spinal cord runs from C1 (junction with the medulla), to about L1, where it becomes the cauda equina. Note that it terminates lower down in children – the spinal cord...

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Spirometry

Introduction Spirometry is the most widely used pulmonary function test (aka lung function test). It measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration; it is an assessment of how effectively the lungs can be...

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Spondyloarthritides (ankylosing spondylitis)

Introduction Spondyloarthritides (aka spondyarthritis, SpA, seronegative spondylarthropathy) are inflammatory joint diseases of the vertebral column and sacro-iliac joints, the most common of which is ankylosing spondylitis – AS. These conditions tend to mimic rheumatoid conditions...

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Spondyolisthesis

Introduction Spondylolisthesis refers to an anterior or posterior movement of a vertebrae in relation to its adjacent vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis affects about between 5-12% of the population but most cases are asymptomatic. It is thought...

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