Tetralogy of Falot

Introduction Tetralogy of Falot – R-to-L shunt – CYANOTIC THE most common cause of cyanotic heart disease – but only accounts for <10% of all congenital cardiac abnormalities Has four features: Large VSD – usually...

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Thalassaemia

Introduction Thalassaemias are autosomal recessive inherited disorders of haemoglobin, causing structural deficiencies in haemoglobin molecules. As such, they are a type of haemoglobinopathy. They mainly effect individuals of asian, middle eastern or mediterranean ethnicity....

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The Anion Gap

Introduction The anion gap is a tool used to: Confirm that an acidosis is metabolic Narrow down the cause of a metabolic acidosis Monitor the progress of treatment In a metabolic acidosis the anion...

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The Mental Health Act (England and Wales)

Introduction This was passed in 1983, and amended in 2007. . It is rather long and detailed. It allows for the compulsory admission of those who are mentally ill.  In practical circumstances, doctors and...

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The Red Eye

Introduction There are many causes of a red eye. Below we have outlined the commonest and most important causes. Causes of a red eye: Conjunctivitis Corneal abrasions and ulcers Acute Iritis Scleritis Acute Glaucoma...

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The Thirst Axis

ADH (/vasopressin) is synthesised in the hypothalamus. From there it migrates in neurosecretory granules along axonal pathways to the posterior pituitary gland. Secretion of ADH is principally in response to changes in plasma osmolality....

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The Vomiting Child

Differential Diagnoses The vomiting child is a very common presentation to general practice and emergency departments. By far the most common cause is an infective (usually viral) gastroenteritis, but it is very important to bear in mind...

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Thiazide Diuretics

Introduction Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are commonly used for management of hypertension, as well as management of oedema (e.g. in heart failure or liver failure). They are moderately potent diuretics as opposed to very potent diuretics (loop...

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