Thyroid Carcinoma

Introduction Thyroid nodules are relatively common, and seen in about 5% of the population Only about 5% of thyroid nodules are thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are papillary tumours (about 80%) which are relatively benign. Their incidence...

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Thyroid Eye Disease

Introduction Typically associated with the signs of Grave’s disease (goitre, acropathy, hyperthyroidism and pretibial myxoedema). Autoimmune orbital disease may occur without thyroid autoantibodies Clinical features Swelling of the eyelids Oedema (chemosis) and engorgement of...

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TNM Staging System

The TNM staging system is used in the evaluation of many cancers. Each individual cancer has its own slight variation on the system, however, it is universally applicable in its basic format. T: size...

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Toxoplasmosis

Organism Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa) Incubation: 7-14 days   Transmission Via ingestion, inhalation or blood-blood contact. Infects bowel (poorly cooked meat), lung or broken skin. Found in tissue of most warm blooded mammals but CATS...

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Transplant Reactions

Hyperacute Rejection Occurs within minutes (to hours) – so quick that the surgeon is sometimes able to visualise characteristic changes whilst sill performing the anastomosis of blood vessels. There is rapid agglutination (clumping together...

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Trauma

Introduction Trauma is managed by teams in the Emergency Department. There is often a defined set of individuals on a ‘Trauma Team’. This might include: Team Leader – often an Emergency Physician / Registrar...

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Trichomoniasis

Introduction This is a parasitic protozoan infection, the result of infection with the flagellated anaerobic trichomonas vaginalis. This is the most common protozoan infection in the developed world It is a sexually transmitted infection...

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Tricyclic Antidepressants

Introduction Tricyclic Antidepressants e.g. Amitriptyline, imipramine, lofepramine There are also related compounds, that are not technically tricyclics, but that we will consider as the same here: amoxapine, maprotiline Mechanism They inhibit the uptake of monoamines...

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