Umbilical Cord Compression

Definition Abnormal Umbilical cord position descends through or alongside the cervix passing the presenting part when the membrane is ruptured Type Occult umbilical cord alongside presenting part prolapsed cord contained within uterus cord compressed...

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Understanding ECGs

This article “Understanding ECGs” is part of the almostadoctor ECG series. It provides a basic introduction to ECG waveform, and the practicalities of performing an ECG.  Once you understand the basics of ECG Interpretation, you...

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Undescended Testes

Introduction Undescended testes (aka cryptorchidism, and sometimes maldescended testes) can be congenital or acquired Usually unilateral Congenital undescended testes affects approximately 3-6% of males at birth <1% remain undescended by the age of 1 year Up to...

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Upper GI bleed

Introduction Upper GI bleeding is a major complication of Peptic ulcer disease. It occurs in 1/2000 people each year, of which ½ of these cases are due to PUD. Also remember that patients who...

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Upper Limb Examination

The key aim is to identify the anatomical site of the lesion: central (UMN – brain and spinal cord)versus peripheral (LMN – nerve roots and peripheral nerves). • NB – neurological examination of the...

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Urea & Electrolytes

Example One ↑Na+ ↔K+ ↑↑Urea ↑↑Creatinine Diagnosis Renal failure Main causes of chronic renal failure: Hypertension Diabetes Pyelonephritis / glomerulonephritis Explanation Massively raised urea and creatinine together can only be caused by renal failure....

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Urinary Retention

Introduction This is the inability to micturated, and it can either be chronic or acute   Acute This is a sudden inability to micturate in the presence of a painful bladder. The bladder may...

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Urinary Tract Infection – UTI

Introduction These are very common in women, but far less common in men and children. Recurrent infection can lead to considerable morbidity and may even lead to renal disease, and possibly end stage renal...

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Urine Dipstick Urinalysis

Urine dipstick testing (urinalysis) is a quick, cheap method of urine testing. It is used frequently in primary and secondary care. Beware of false negatives. Advantages over Urine MC+S Urine Microscopy, Culture and Sensitivities...

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