Urea & Electrolytes

Example One ↑Na+ ↔K+ ↑↑Urea ↑↑Creatinine Diagnosis Renal failure Main causes of chronic renal failure: Hypertension Diabetes Pyelonephritis / glomerulonephritis Explanation Massively raised urea and creatinine together can only be caused by renal failure....

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Urinary Retention

Introduction This is the inability to micturated, and it can either be chronic or acute   Acute This is a sudden inability to micturate in the presence of a painful bladder. The bladder may...

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Urinary Tract Infection – UTI

Introduction These are very common in women, but far less common in men and children. Recurrent infection can lead to considerable morbidity and may even lead to renal disease, and possibly end stage renal...

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Urine Dipstick Urinalysis

Urine dipstick testing (urinalysis) is a quick, cheap method of urine testing. It is used frequently in primary and secondary care. Beware of false negatives. Advantages over Urine MC+S Urine Microscopy, Culture and Sensitivities...

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Urological Procedures

Circumcision Phimosis This is a tight foreskin that cannot be retracted behind the glans. This is normal in new-borns, and as the child grows, then the foreskin should normally become retractable (by the age...

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