Xanthines

Introduction These are naturally occurring chemicals found in tea, coffee, chocolate and other related foods. They are chemically similar to caffeine. They have vasodilating, bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating actions, but the mechanisms of these...

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XXX Females

Approximately 0.1% of females have an extra X chromosome. It is likely that there will be no clinical features, however, some studies suggest that: intelligence is typically reduced by 10-20 IQ points. Special educational...

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XYY Males

Very similar to XXX in females. The incidence is again about 1 in 1000. They may have slightly reduced intellectual ability (10-20 IQ points), and a tendency for aggressive and criminal behaviour. Most cases...

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