Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS)

Introduction Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) was formerly known as HyperOsmolar Non-Ketotic coma (HONK). HHS is a condition that occurs in patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus and have very high blood sugars...

More

Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis is the state produced by excessive thyroid hormone. It is not strictly the same thing as hyperthyroidism, as thyrotoxicosis can exist without hyperthyroidism being present ‚Äď for example ‚Äď after the administration...

More

Hypopituitarism

Introduction Hypopituitarism entails reduced secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Which hormones go first? Anterior pituitary hormones are affected in the following order: GH >> muscle and bone FSH >> ovary LH >> testes Polactin >> breast TSH >> thyroid ACTH >> kidney and adrenal gland N.B....

More

Hypothyroidism

Introduction Hypothyroidism (aka myxoedema) is a common disorder which presents most frequently in women and the elderly. It can usually be managed in primary care without the need for specialist involvement (unlike hyperthyroidism) and...

More