The Thirst Axis

ADH (/vasopressin) is synthesised in the hypothalamus. From there it migrates in neurosecretory granules along axonal pathways to the posterior pituitary gland. Secretion of ADH is principally in response to changes in plasma osmolality....

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Thyroid Carcinoma

Introduction Thyroid nodules are relatively common, and seen in about 5% of the population Only about 5% of thyroid nodules are thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are papillary tumours (about 80%) which are relatively benign. Their incidence...

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Thyroid Eye Disease

Introduction Typically associated with the signs of Grave’s disease (goitre, acropathy, hyperthyroidism and pretibial myxoedema). Autoimmune orbital disease may occur without thyroid autoantibodies Clinical features Swelling of the eyelids Oedema (chemosis) and engorgement of...

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Type 1 Diabetes and Management of DKA

Introduction Type I diabetes is a disorder that results from the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin It accounts for about 10% of cases of diabetes mellitus, the other...

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Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is largely preventable, common metabolic disorder, of increasing incidence and increasing significance, particularly in developed countries. In 2014, about 3% of the population had a diagnosis of T2DM....

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