Pancreatic Cancer

Introduction Pancreatic cancers are 95% exocrine, adenocarcinomas. These affect the duct or surround the duct. The remaining 5% are neuroendocrine tumours e.g. insulinomas, glucagonomas (the former being the more common). This article pertains to...

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Pancreatitis

Introduction Pancreatitis is a condition involving inflammation of the pancreas. It can be acute or chronic; acute pancreatitis can return to normal after resolution of the episode, conversely chronic pancreatitis, is continuing inflammation, often with irreversible...

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Peptic Ulcer Disease

Introduction The term ‚Äėpeptic ulcer‚Äô refers to ulcer found in the lower oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Rarely, they can occur in the jejunum and ileum (usually after surgery). They are caused by infection with¬†Helicobacter...

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Physiology of Absorption

Carbohydrate absorption Carbohydrates are large macromolecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. They have the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n, where m is different from n. Exceptions do exist though. Four different forms exist, depending...

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PR exam

Indications Change of Bowel habit ‚Äď constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus Rectal bleeding Perianal symptoms e.g. pain/itching/discharge Urinary symptoms in men (for BPH) Assessment of anal tone in neurological exam ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†...

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Introduction Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in the fibrosis and destruction of intra-hepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This can lead to cholestasis, hypertension and liver failure. Epidemiology 75%...

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Pyloric Stenosis

Epidemiology More common in boys (4:1) Often a maternal family history Increased risk if siblings were affected Erythromycin exposure in first few weeks of life Pathology There is a functional obstruction of the pyloric...

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