Laryngeal and Tracheal Infection

  • Reading time:5 mins read

Introduction Although sometimes referred to as synonymous as ‚ÄėCroup‚Äô there can be many causes, croup just being the most common. It can be a very serious acute situation, as inflammation…

Continue Reading Laryngeal and Tracheal Infection


  • Reading time:3 mins read

Organism Leishmania (protozoa) Transmission Via sandflies Leishmania anastigotes infect sandflies when they take them up with their blood meal. Pathogenesis The adult female sand ingests the pathogen in the form…

Continue Reading Leishmaniasis


  • Reading time:2 mins read

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease Organism mycobacterium leprae = intracellular parasite. Incubation period tuberculoid = 2-5 years lepromatous = 8-11 years   Transmission Spread in nasal discharges to the…

Continue Reading Leprosy


  • Reading time:3 mins read

Leptospirosis: also known as Weil's Disease Organism Spirochaete¬†bacterium called¬†Leptospira¬†spp incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Via the urine of an infected animal (contagious as long as it is still moist) Rats, mice,…

Continue Reading Leptospirosis

Lumbar Puncture (LP)

  • Reading time:9 mins read

Lumbar puncture is a procedure conducted to ascertain if there is an acute meningitis or sub arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to detect inflammation in the spinal cord (e.g. in multiple sclerosis)…

Continue Reading Lumbar Puncture (LP)

Lyme Disease

  • Reading time:2 mins read

Organism Borrelia Burgdorferi (spirochaete) Incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Vector=ticks Animal hosts=deer/rodents Epidemiology Commonest vector borne illness in USA Focally endemic in woodland of north America - infections mostly occur in…

Continue Reading Lyme Disease