Sleep Disorders – Summary

Physiology of sleep Normal Sleep is divided into two main stages: NREM: (non-rapid eye movement) There are four sub-stages of NREM: Stage 1 – Stage 4 Characterized as: No eye movement Slow EEG rhythms High...

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Speech Disorders

Expressive dysphasia People understand commands, but are unable to find the words to respond appropriately. To test for this, ask them to do basic motor tasks (e.g. close eyes), put hands on head. Then...

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Spinal Cord Compression

Physiology and anatomy The spinal cord runs from C1 (junction with the medulla), to about L1, where it becomes the cauda equina. Note that it terminates lower down in children – the spinal cord...

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Status Epilepticus

Definition Tonic Clonic Seizure lasting > 5 minutes, OR Two or more seizures without full recovery (GCS = 15) in between (over any time period, usually within an hour or so) Seizures in status epileptics...

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Subarachnoid Haemorrhage – SAH

Introduction This is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The classical sign is a sudden onset intense headache (“feel like I’ve been hit on the back of the head Doc”). The bleeding occurs as the...

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Subdural Haematoma

Introduction A subdural haematoma is a collection of blood between the arachnoid and dura mater. It can be acute, chronic, or acute on chronic. Most cases are chronic, and occur in the elderly after...

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Summary of Headaches

  Headache Characteristics Duration Fequency Mechanism Treatment Tension   Tight band feeling, stress, low mood  -Diffuse, ache,dull – Worse on touching scalp, agg by noise -Associated with tension – Depression may co- exist –...

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